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The history of threads and yarn

Each meter of textile material produced today carries knowledge and memory accumulated over centuries, during which man was engaged in one of the oldest technologies of fiber and yarn production.

About 6 thousand years ago, man already knew and had been using four main natural fibers: linen and wool (5 thousand years BC), silk (2600 years BC) and cotton (1 thousand years BC). The first fiber mastered by man was linen. 5,000 years before Christ, in the territory of modern Egypt in the valley of the Nile river, linen was made into cloth. People knew how to extract fibers from the stems of plants and weave them into cloth even earlier, and used it as a cover for their bodies.

During the excavations of the ancient settlement found by archaeologists on the shores of the Swiss Lake, which existed at the end of the Stone Age, strands of flax fibers, fragments of fabrics and primitive devices with the help of which thread and fabric were produced were discovered. They lay in the water under a thick layer of silt for thousands of years and therefore were preserved.

The second most important fiber mastered by man was wool. The earliest date associated with sheep breeding and wool production, confirmed by excavations, corresponds to 4000 BC. e. In the Euphrates valley (Ancient Mesopotamia), sheep were bred, wool was spun and primitive fabrics were woven. Woolen fabrics were also produced in ancient Babylon, and not far from the Persian Gulf, archaeologists unearthed an ancient mosaic depicting sheep breeding, which corresponds to approximately 3500 BC. e.

According to historical data, in 1111, King Henry I of England founded a woolen factory at the mouth of the Tweed River and settled Flemish textile workers in English cities and villages to improve English knowledge in textile production. He founded the first textile guilds for the production of woolen fabrics.

Silk is the third most important natural fiber. The homeland of its production is considered to be China. According to legend, the Chinese empress Heng-Ling-Chi (2600 BC) was the first to discover this exquisite fiber. She accidentally dipped the cocoon in hot water and saw that silk threads had separated from the softened cocoon. The empress realized the potential use of these threads and their potential importance. This is how the oldest culture of sericulture was born, based on the life activity of the mulberry silkworm. The Chinese brought the culture and production of silk to perfection. In 1400 BC e. silk fabrics and clothing made of it have become common items of consumption in these countries. Silk came to Europe only in 552.

The fourth most important natural fiber mastered by man is cotton. The first confirmation of its production dates back to 1000 BC. e., as shown by archaeological excavations of settlements in India. Merchants imported cotton from India to the Middle East, to Central Asia and then to China. Historical data claim that in Egypt 2500 years BC. e. knew how to make fabrics from cotton of the highest quality, which are not inferior even to modern ones.

In this way, four natural fibers were mastered and used for fabric production by prehistoric man according to the developed scheme: cultivation, spinning, weaving. Invented more than 6,000 years ago, this simple scheme has not undergone fundamental changes until now, passing the way from manual to highly automated high-speed technology. The simplest spinning wheels and looms found during excavations of ancient settlements are based on the same principles as modern automated textile weaving equipment.